Study Guide for Final Exam: Human Anatomy and Physiology II

Ch.16 Blood

1.      Blood composition

2.      Functions of formed elements: RBC, WBC, platelets

3.      Define hemopoisis

4.      List 3 substances required for normal blood production in the red bone marrow.

5.      Where are the RBC removed from the blood?

6.      Name and describe the functions of the major types of WBC.

7.      Name 3 processes that prevent blood loss.

8.       What is a blood clot?

9.      Differentiate between embolus and thrombus.

10.  Major blood types and Rh-factor. What is erythroblastosis fetalis?

Ch.17 Heart

1.      Name the 3 layers of the heart wall.

2.      Structure of the heart- heart chambers.

3.       Heart valves and their function.

4.      Flow of blood from the heart to the body cells.

5.      Conducting system of the heart.

6.      Normal heart rate, bradicardia, and tachycardia.

7.      ECG waves

8.       Normal blood pressure.

9.       Heart sounds and murmur.

Ch.18 Blood Vessels

1.      Differentiate between arteries and veins.

2.      Function of the capillaries.

3.      Major branches of the aorta.

4.      Function of SVC, IVC and jugulars.

5.      Which vein is used to draw blood from at the elbow?

6.      Age related changes in the arteries.

7.      Define BP and instrument use to measure BP.

8.      List the major pulse points.


Ch.19 Lymphatic System

1.      Name the organs of the lymphatic system and their functions.

2.      Define lymph.

3.      In what direction does lymph flow?

4.      Describe the functions of right lymphatic duct and thoracic duct.

5.      Where are the lymph nodes found?

6.      Define the 2 types of immunity in the body.

7.      Symptoms of local and systemic inflammation.

8.      Types of immunity: active and passive, natural and artificial.


Ch.20 Respiratory System

1.       Organs of respiratory system.

2.       Functions of the nasal cavity.

3.       List parts of the pharynx.

4.       What is the smoking effect lining of the trachea?

5.       Lobes of the lungs.

6.       Which membrane surrounds the lungs?

7.       What is the function of surfactant?

8.       Lung volumes and capacities.


Ch.21 Digestive System

1.       List the organs of digestion.

2.       List the accessory glands of digestive system

3.       Types of teeth and parts of a tooth.

4.       What is mesentery?

5.       List the functions of the liver.

6.       What is lactose intolerant?

7.       Major enzymes for digestion of carbs, proteins, and lipids.

8.       List the parts of the small intestine.

9.       List the parts of the large intestine.

10.   Which is the bad cholesterol?


Ch.23 Urinary System

1.       List the organs of urinary system.

2.       Describe the location of the kidneys.

3.       List the processes involved in urine formation.

4.       What is a nephrone? Describe its function.

5.       List waste substances that are excreted trough the urine.

6.       What stimulates micturation?


Ch.24 Reproductive System

1.       Organs of male reproductive system.

2.       List the male accessory glands.

3.       Organs of female reproductive system (including external genitalia).